Pubblicato da John Doe
Active components tutorial
Integrated circuits (also called IC, integrated circuits) are nothing more than a miniaturization of electronic circuits formed by transistors. There are different types of integrated circuits used for different tasks of altering an electrical signal. The different types are all characterized by a code printed on the back of the component indicating the type of integrated and a certain number of pins. The direction of the integrated circuit is signaled by the presence of a hole or circle (see the figure alongside). The presence of this distinctive sign identifies the numbering of the feet: n.1 is in fact the left foot of the circle facing upwards. It is advisable to mount the integrated circuits on the appropriate sockets: in this way, in addition to the versatility of being able to change the integrated circuit without welding / unsoldering, it avoids burning or compromising the component during the soldering process.
The transistor is a semiconductor device characterized by 3 terminals. The task of the transistor is normally to amplify a signal thanks to the application of a voltage or current to two terminals and to the regulation of the current that passes through the transistor itself. There are different types of transistors, with different characteristics: silicon, Darlington, FET, germanium and voltage regulators. As already mentioned for integrated circuits, mounting on the appropriate clogs is highly recommended. The transistors must be mounted according to a precise orientation, dependent on the electronic circuit being created and the transistor used.
The diode is characterized by two connection terminals and allows electrical current to pass in one direction and to block it completely in the other. There are different types of diodes, with different characteristics: germanium, Schottky, Zener, LED, etc. Diodes they must be mounted according to a precise orientation (anode (positive) = longer foot and cathode (negative) = shorter pin):
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